The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of wars fought in the first half of the 5th century BC (492-449 BC) between the Persian Empire and an alliance of Greek City-States. Although the Persians were at the peak of their strength, the collective defense mounted by the allied Greek City-States succeeded in defeating the much stronger Persian Empire against all odds.
The political geography of the period was vastly different from that of the present day. The Mediterranean Sea was the center of the world. The rugged geography of the Greek pen- insula afforded city-states a terrain that favored defense and allowed them to defeat more powerful opponents.
What is known today of the Greco-Persian Wars is derived primarily from the Histories of Herodotus, the Greek historian who is widely referred to as “The Father of History”.
He blends together history, ethnography, geography, anthropology and political critique in the course of explaining the cause of the Persian wars.